This report provides a succinct overview of the current economic, demographic, structural, dietary and retail transitions under way in Indonesia, trends in diets across the archipelago, the outcomes of these diets for health, and the role of both Indonesian diets and export agriculture in driving environmental change. It examines how policies, markets, technology trends and decentralized governance both enable and hinder progress towards healthy diets from sustainable food systems. It identifies, from a public policy perspective, those interventions that offer the greatest opportunity for harnessing positive trends through smart policy design and cross- sectoral engagement. It provides an example of how joined-up actions across the food system could work for one component of diets and agriculture: sugar. In conclusion, a brief commentary is included on the current political window of opportunity for champions of healthy and sustainable diets in Indonesia who wish to build momentum to take forward this critical agenda for change.