Overview of SCP in Central Asia
Countries in Central Asia are at different stages in terms of awareness raising and policies directed towards shifting to SCP. Most of SCP related activities have been conducted and implemented by UN Environment (UNEP) and the Secretariat of 10 Year Framework of Programs on SCP (10 YFP). The first regional meeting on SCP for Central Asian countries was organised by UNEP and the Secretariat of 10YFP in Almaty, Kazakhstan, in November 2015. During the Workshop, challenges and opportunities were discussed together with priority areas for the implementation of SCP policies and tools. Among the regional priorities, sustainable building and construction, sustainable public procurement and sustainable food systems were highlighted. Main regional challenges traced the link between poor management of water and energy resources and the significant impact this has on food supply and security, ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation. A second meeting for Central Asia and East European countries was held in Romania in 2016. Moreover, the Secretariat of 10YFP started a regional project on Sustainable Public Procurement for three Central Asia countries – Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan. Regional structures such as the Inter-state Commission on Sustainable Development (ICSD) and the Central Asia Regional Environmental Center (CAREC) play important roles in promoting SCP at regional and national levels, as well as providing the framework for capacity building to deliver needed changes. Among other organisations, the EU, UNDP, UNEP, UNIDO, UN ESCAP, ADB and the World Bank support activities related to SCP. In this context, the extension of the SWITCH-Asia programme to Central Asia will build on and scale up relevant actions through synergies and partnerships. EU SWITCH-Asia Launch Event in Central Asia was held on 5-th of July 2019 in Bishkek. This event was co-organised by the SWITCH-Asia SCP Facility, the European Commission, Directorate-General for International Cooperation and Development (DG DEVCO) and concerned European Union Delegations.
Turkmenistan National Context for SCP
In Turkmenistan, the national ministries covering SCP related issues are: Ministry of Environment and Agriculture, Ministry of Finance and Economy, Ministry of Energy, Ministry of Industry, the Committee on Water Management, Ministry of Construction, Ministry of Trade and Foreign Affairs, among others. The Chamber of Industry and Trade that was established to promote the development of Turkmenistan’s economy, as well as managing relations with foreign partners, and the Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs, that has the mandate to support SMEs and promote the development of the private sector, are also active players in advancing SCP. The Government of Turkmenistan has passed several legislative reforms, including the amendments to the law on free economic zones, the labour code, the land code and the tax code. The “National Development plan for 2018-2024” was adopted in October 2017, aiming at creating job opportunities in all provinces of Turkmenistan to reduce imports and boost exports, creating favourable conditions for farmers with guaranteed food security. A new version of the National Strategy of Turkmenistan on Climate Change is under development. This strategy focuses on climate-friendly livelihoods in arid regions, energy efficiency and rational water use.Industrial projects in the mining, chemical, metallurgical industries are being developed with support from the Government. The construction of pipelines is an important issue for Turkmenistan.
Low competitiveness of several domestic sectors that produce consumer goods, especially in the food industry. Energy sector is the strongest for the country’s economic development. Export is dominated by raw materials.
Gradual privatisation of state-owned companies should offer the opportunity to promote SCP policies and tools, as well as develop relevant partnerships and strengthen the country’s integration into the regional market. The agri-food sector is rapidly developing and playing an important role in the domestic market.
The Government of Turkmenistan officially adopted the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development.
The national working group on the implementation of SDGs was established. Several State and sector programmes have been subsequently adopted, including the Programme of the President of Turkmenistan on Socio-economic Development of the Country (2019-2025), which fully covers SDGs.
- Under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the SDG Training Centre was established at the Institute of International Relations, to promote education and awareness raising on the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development.
- The proportion of the involvement in agriculture of the private sector compared to the state is 92%; 68,5% in the industry.
- Environmental passports have been given to the industrial building sector.
- A national climate change strategy was developed and it includes several adaptation measures, like increasing forestation and creating the lake Altyn Asyr in the Karakum desert.
- A national forest programme entered into force in 2013. Up to 3 million seedlings have been planted.
- A regional programme on environmental protection for sustainable development in Central Asia is also being developed.
- A national programme for regions’ development is currently being implemented.
- A programme for the development of tourism in Turkmenistan for 2011-2020 was approved
- Turkmenistan is committed to enhance its economic ties with the Caspian countries and Europe,and expanding interaction in the areas of the digital economy and special economic zones.
Preliminary Needs Assessment
Collaborations should be established with the new Ministry of Environment and Agriculture to support the development of SCP policy and action plans. Awareness raising campaigns on SCP and its tools should be initiated and the organisation of inter-ministerial and public-private policy dialogues on SCP should be supported.