Before the COVID-19 pandemic erupted, governments’ pledges for sustainable development were flourishing, most notably as countries signed up to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, the devastating health and economic impacts of COVID-19 on the decade-long progress to fight poverty have forced governments to rethink their socioeconomic models so that they do not compromise human health and ecosystems. In this context, voluntary sustainability standards (VSS) are being increasingly recognized as potentially transformative tools for governments to realize their sustainability commitments. This 4th Flagship Report aims to provide an understanding of the role of government as a vehicle to drive the adoption of VSS. The effectiveness of VSS to contribute to sustainable development partly depends on their degree of adoption by economic operators. In this respect, governments can play a significant role through public procurement and trade policy.