Philippines

Project title Sector SCP practice
AEMAS Utilities sector Product design for sustainability
Efficient Air Conditioners / ASEAN SHINE Electrical equipment industry Eco-labels, Product design for sustainability
GPIOS Cross cutting issues Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Management, Eco-labels
Hand-Woven Eco-Textiles Textile and leather industry Business and products for the poor, Sustainable Supply Chain Management
High Efficiency Motors Electrical equipment industry Cleaner Production
Lead Elimination Project Chemical sector Cleaner Production
SMART Cebu Cross cutting issues, Wood-based industry
ZCR for Sustainable Tourism Service industry Product design for sustainability, Eco-labels
Zero Carbon Resorts - ZCR Service industry Product design for sustainability

Focal point

Mr. Marlo D. Mendoza, 
OIC, Undersecretary for Policy and Planning
Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)

SWITCH-Asia RPSC

In the Philippines, the SWITCH-Asia Programme's policy support is implemented through a National Policy Support Component (NPSC). It builds upon existing legislation and was designed to strengthen selected, sector specific "clean growth" legislation rather than create new strands of work or support SCP as a new, broad cross-cutting issue.

The project purpose is in line with the Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016 and in particular with Goal 3 of the Environment and Natural Resources Chapter: Improved Environmental Quality for a Cleaner and Healthier Environment. It will also contribute to good governance as it supports the Government in implementing existing laws and contains capacity building activities. Finally, the SCP activities contribute to climate change mitigation and reduce other negative environmental impacts of industrial production. The project is built around three work areas:

1. The implementation of policies and regulation related to clean energy and energy efficiency is facilitated

  • The project supports the government in implementing existing clean energy legislation, e.g. the Renewable Act and the Bio-fuel Act. Through targeted technical assistance the project advised the Department of Energy on the best ways to increase investment in clean energy projects (grid and off-grid) and the use of biofuels in road transport that is financially attractive to end users, environmentally sustainable and not conflicting with food production. This includes life cycle assessment of the current biofuels feedstock and exploration of other sources.
  • The project advises the Department of Energy in the area of energy efficiency. It supported the development of a Roadmap for energy efficiency and a National Energy Efficiency Action Plan for the Philippines 2016-2020, including allocating targets, roles, responsibilities and financial resources for its implementation. It is envisioned to stimulate new investments on energy efficiency technologies and services.
  • The project supported the establishment of a Monitoring, Verification and Enforcement Scheme for the Philippine Energy Standards and Labelling Programme. The labelling of energy standards for seven product groups have been declared as mandatory and guidelines for its monitoring, verification and enforcement have been developed to secure compliance.

The department of Energy is in the lead for this work area.

2. The Green Public Procurement (GPP) and Ecolabelling programmes are expanded to new government bodies and new product respectively

  • In the area of GPP the project supports the implementation of Executive Order 301 on the establishment of a Green Procurement for all departments, bureaus, offices and agencies of the executive branch of the government issued in 2004. Despite the order, the promotion of GPP had not much success in the Philippines in the past. Based on the assessment of difficulties the project work focuses on supporting the implementation of green procurement in a pilot department (Department of Industry, DTI) and its regional offices. A DTI green procurement plan was developed and is being implemented. This plan includes the assessment of market readiness of enterprises and technical support to SMEs for participating in GPP. Staff members from selected department and agencies were trained on environmental impact and life-cycle assessment criteria and green procurements were executed for 3 product groups. In cooperation with PCEPSDI the green specification of 10 additional product groups are being developed. Based on the experiences with DTI, GPP is now being scaled-up to other departments and offices, including Local Government Units (LGUs).
  • Support to the National Ecolabelling Programme-Green Choice Philippines (NELP-GCP) is provided through PCEPSDI, the Administrator of the programme. Based on the outcome of a diagnostic study which listed difficulties encountered by former beneficiaries, recommendations for actions were developed and implemented to overcome the constraints. This involves the organizational restructuring of the NELP-GCP Programme and the GCP ecolabelling criteria. Outreach campaigns, public events and exhibitions of eco-labelled products were supported to increase the demand and supply of eco-labelled products in the market. The eco-labelled products are listed in the "Philippine Green Pages" managed by PCEPSDI.

The Department of Trade and Industry is in lead for this activity.

3. DENR's capacity to address priority, cross cutting SCP matters is enhanced including on clean air legislation

  • The project supports DENR in the implementation of the Clean Air Act (1999). Improvements have been made in air quality since the passage of the Clean Air Act. Lead concentration has dropped following the complete phase-out of lead in gasoline throughout the country. The closure of several coal-fired and oil-fired thermal generating stations in the Metro Manila air-shed has greatly reduced sulphur dioxide concentration and particulate matter. Air quality in urban areas however remains poor with regard to criteria pollutants and needs extensive monitoring. The project advises the Environmental Management Bureau (EMB) of DENR on air quality monitoring and on priority measures to curb air pollution. Four air quality monitoring stations have been set up as part of the Metro Manila air quality monitoring network. Continuous measurement and delivery of air quality data of criteria pollutants using ambient air analysers has started and staff members have been trained in its processing.
  • The project supported and advised on the development of the National Air Quality Status Report (NAQSR) for 2012-2013. This report also contains recommendation to address air pollution and describes projects and action taken by stakeholders in clean air.
  • The project provides technical assistance to three priority measures identified in discussions with EMB and endorsed by the Steering Committee: a) Development of an emission charge scheme for industries. The scheme will contribute to decrease air pollution by industries. b) Assessment of respirable pollution sources in Metro Manila and receptor modelling (source apportionment). The receptor modelling will help in identifying the sources and extent of their contribution to pollution. c) Preparation of guidelines and training for Airshed Carrying Capacity Analysis. It is an important tool for airshed management as requested by the Clean Air Act.. The general outlines for implementing the three priority measures have been developed. Implementation of the emission charge scheme has started based on the proposals described in the study done.
  • Other cross-cutting sustainable consumption and production matters are addressed under this work area on request and ad-hoc basis. Activities supported include the review and plan of priority measures for strengthening SCP implementation among national and local government institutions and government owned and controlled corporation in the Manila Bay Region, and several trainings and events on SCP matters and Climate Change.

Status of SCP policy framework

The incorporation of policy instruments related with the concept of Sustainable Consumption and Production in the Philippines has started in 1990s. Realizing the seriousness of Climate Change as a global threat, the Philippines signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in June 1992 as one of the first countries and ratified the Convention in 1994. It is also a signatory to the Green Productivity Declaration in 1996 (Manila Declaration). In December 1999, the Philippines signed the Kyoto Protocol which was ratified in February 2005. Being a Non-Annex I country, the Philippines promoted the implementation of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under Kyoto Protocol to encourage clean and environmental friendly technologies for greenhouse gas reduction in the country.

The Government of the Philippines is faced with the relatively new challenge to curb existing practices and to shift towards new modes of production and consumption. The Government has acknowledged the need to promote green growth and has equipped the country with a very comprehensive legal framework. Several laws and policy instruments have been adopted to promote SCP. These include:

  • The Renewable Energy Act (Republic Act 9513) was passed in 2008. It promotes the development, utilization and commercialization of renewable energy resources and for other purposes.
  • The Bio Fuels Act (Republic Act 9367) of 2006 mandates the use of biodiesel and bioethanol blended gasoline as transport fuels.
  • Government Procurement Act (Republic Act 9184) of 2002. An Act providing for the modernization, standardization and regulation of the procurement activities of the Government and for other purposes.
  • Executive Order 301 of 2004. On Order for establishing a Green Procurement Program for all Departments, Bureaus, Offices and Agencies of the Executive branch of the Government
  • Clean Air Act (Republic Act 8749) of 1999. It sets the provisions and guidelines to mitigate and reduce emissions levels from stationary, mobile and area sources.
  • Clean Water Act (Republic Act 9275) of 2004. The Act aims to protect the country's water bodies from pollution from land-based sources (industries and commercial establishments, agriculture and community/household activities). It provides for a comprehensive and integrated strategy to prevent and minimize pollution through a multi-sectoral and participatory approach involving all the stakeholders.
  • Toxic Substance and Hazardous and Nuclear Waste Control (Republic Act 6969) of 1999. his Act shall cover the importation, manufacture, processing, handling, storage, transportation, sale, distribution, use and disposal of all unregulated chemical substances and mixtures in the Philippines, including the entry even in transit, as well as the keeping or storage and disposal of hazardous and nuclear wastes into the country for whatever purposes.
  • Ecological Solid Waste Management Law (Republic Act 9003) of 2001. This Act makes provision for the efficient solid waste management, for the volume reduction of the waste, its environment friendly disposal, composting, recycling, re-use, recovery, green charcoal process; for the collection, treatment and disposal in environmentally sound solid waste management facilities whereas it shall be possible to correctly dispose the proper segregation, collection, transport, storage, treatment and disposal of solid waste.
  • Climate Change Act (Republic Act 9729) of 2009. The Act of 2009 aims to mainstream climate change into government policy formulations, establishes the framework strategy and program on climate change and creates the Climate Change Commission. The law places the cities at the forefront of sustainable urban development and climate change initiatives.

Resource consumption and production

Main Resource Consumption and Resource Efficiency Indicators (2010)

Population (thousands) 94852 (2011)
GDP (million USD) 224754 (2011)
GDP is in USD exchange rate based on year 2005 and deflated.
Source: UNSD database.
Subject Area Total Per person Per USD$ of GDP
Domestic Material Consumption, DMC
(tonnes, tonnes per capita, kgr per 1USD$)
358,297,664.00 3.83 0.0016
GHG emissions
(kilotonnes, tonnes per capita, kgr per 1USD$)
159,940.45 1.71 7.12
Total Primary Energy Supply, TPES
(Petajoules, Gigajoules per capita, Megajoules per 1USD$)
1,695.56 18.15 7.54
Water Use
(Trillion litres, Kilolitres per capita, Litres per 1USD$)
81.56 872.82 3.63
Subject Area Indicator
Population density 2015 (UNESA 2012 revision), population per sq.km 339
GDP per capita (USD), 2013 WB 2,765.10
HDI Rank (2013) UNDP 0.66
Arable land (hectares per person) WB 2012 0.06
Forest cover in % (2010), UNSTATS 26
Material intensity (2010) UNEP 2.73
Per-capita energy use (kg of oil equivalent per capita) 2011, WB 426
Energy intensity (total primary energy consumption per USD of GDP) 2011, EIA 9,220.59
GHG intensity (2010) UNEP 1.22
CO2 emissions (metric tone per capita), 2010, WB 0.9
Number of Middle Class consumers % (2010), ADB 55
Number of people with income < 2USD/day (PPP, USD, %), 2010, ADB 44

Trends in Resource Consumption and Resource Efficiency Indicators (1970-2010)

DE: Domestic Extraction;
MI: Material Intensity of the economy;
MF: Material Footprint.
All other abbreviations explained in the table above

For the Philippines Panel a) shows GDP growing fastest, followed by TPES, DMC and population (which all increased by a factor of 2.5), then GHG emissions which doubled. Panel b) shows a small reduction in DE per capita, with a major change in the mix of materials. Biomass has declined, but so too has metal ores, while non-metallic minerals grew strongly. Panel c) shows that MF per capita values which are broadly similar to DE values, although the material mix is somewhat different, with the share of biomass reduced somewhat. Panels d), e) and f) show little change in energy consumption, and GHG emissions, per capita between 1990 and 2010, regardless of whether footprints or conventional measures are used. All six intensity measures decreased (very slightly in the case of adjusted EI), indicating general relative decoupling. Conventional measures of consumption overestimate energy, and underestimate GHG emissions, relative to footprint based measures.

(Source: UNEP CSIRO Indicators for a Resource Efficient and Green Asia and the Pacific, 2015).

Key references relevant to SCP

UNEP's relevant activities

The information in the country profiles herein have been obtained through research with firsthand and secondhand sources. The information presented herein cannot be considered as official policy of governments or other official bodies. The SWITCH-Asia Programme cannot be held responsible for the content of the sites to which it provides links or for the availability of servers or links. Information is being continuously updated in order to maintain an up to date country profile. If you would like to contribute information for this profile or have any further comments, please send an email to: SWITCH-PSC@unep.org

Status

Introduction

99.6% of businesses in the Philippines are SMEs, and they employ 63% of the workforce.[1] 49.9% of SMEs are in wholesale and retail industry, 14.7% in manufacturing, 12.3% in the hotels and restaurant industry and the 5.9% in real estate.[2] Even though SMEs dominate the economy, a study by the ADB on the SME sector in the Philippines indicated that SME loans make up only 12% of total banking sector lending portfolio.

Legislation such as the Magna Carta mandates bank to allocate at least 8% of their loan portfolio to micro and small enterprises and at least 2% to medium-sized enterprises.

Main SME development legislation:

·      Republic Act No. 10644, “Go Negosyo Act of 2013”

·      Republic Act No. 9501, “Magna Carta for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) Act of 2008”

·      Republic Act No. 9178, “Barangay Micro Business Enterprises (BMBEs) Act of 2002”

In the Philippines, the focus on SMEs as a development driver of the economy vacillates depending on the political dispensation and the priorities enunciated in 5-year development plans.

SMEs generally rely on information sources rather than bank financing. This can have an impact on access of SMEs to green finance and it may be instructive to understand the entrepreneurial mind-set towards formal financing sources.

Green finance is a relatively new product line to most banks even though the idea of funding environment-friendly projects started in the early 1990s with overseas development assistance (ODA) channeled through government-owned development banks.


[1] http://dirp3.pids.gov.ph/webportal/CDN/PUBLICATIONS/pidsdps1520_rev.pdf

[2] http://www.adpc.net/igo/contents/blogs/ABF2016/download/presentation/Day%201_20%20Apr%202016/02_Thematic%20Discussion/5.%20Presentation%20Phils-Template1.pdf

Progress is needed to make green finance a financial tool to enable SCP

·      Intensify information dissemination to negate inaccurate perceptions about green finance

·      Review outdated provisions of existing environmental laws and policies to make them more relevant to present demands

·      Strengthen local expertise specifically in the appraisal of proposals for green financing.

·      Reach out to the target market to help institutions know the needs and demands of their customers better

·      Appropriate new technologies, which are vital to facilitating an understanding of and access to green finance.

Banks can help improve SME resilience to climate change

·      Set up of financing facilities such as grants and concessionary loans intended for SMEs and a special credit line in the form of Business Disaster Loans (i.e. a risk mitigating facility) for medium-sized companies must be in place.[1] 

·      Provision of additional capital support for SMEs during disaster events, including optional loan restructuring, and tax reprieve should be considered especially for small and medium enterprises.[2]


[1] https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/127030/1/pidsdps1520_rev.pdf

[2] Ibid

Challenges

·      Loan applications entail documentary requirements such as proof of capacity to pay, and other legal documents including income tax returns, audited financial statements, and business permits, which may be cumbersome for SMEs used to the way so the informal sector.

·      SMEs can be intimidated by banks and traditional bankers who think small enterprises have no acceptable collateral, lack financial literacy, no reasonable accounting or business systems or are unfamiliar with bank requirements.

·      SMEs are located in areas far from banks; some people may not be aware of the financial services available to them.

·      Services from financial institutions are perceived to be too costly

·      Some SMEs are either unable or willing to pay for the high fees of a bank transaction

·      SMEs hesitate to deal with banks because of their low level of awareness of the different financing options available in banks.

·      Many banks think that SMEs do not keep proper records and lack sound management systems, so banks see SMEs as risky borrowers and make them less appealing to lenders. 

Main institutions providing Green Finance

State-owned Development Bank of the Philippines (DBP) is one of the more aggressive players pushing for green financing programmes in the country. DBP has set forth formal green financing guidelines and procedures way back in the 1990s and can be considered the first institution to establish a green financing programme in the Philippines.

The Land Bank of the Philippines (Landbank) is a universal bank owned by the Philippine government with special focus on serving the needs of farmers and fishermen. As a dominant financial institution in countryside development, Landbank adheres to and actively promotes environmental protection and sustainability development in its largely agri-banking operation, products and services.

Bank of Philippine Islands (BPI) has been funding projects principally from IFC's Sustainable Energy Finance Program, which is coursed through financial institutions to help businesses adopt environment-friendly technologies. Since 2008, the programme has provided some $119 million in loans for projects that are expected to help avoid around 100 000 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions each year.

People's Credit and Finance Corporation (PCFC) implements a Micro-Energy Credit Program that aims to support reforms and priority investments to improve the quality of life in rural areas. The programme provides adequate, affordable and reliable energy services, specifically small-scale renewable energy solar lanterns.

Alalay sa Kaunlaran, Inc. (ASKI), a non-governmental organisation based in Cabanatuan City, Nueva Ecija, Philippines, was recognised in the Karlsruhe Sustainable Finance Awards 2013, one of the highlights of the Global Sustainable Finance Conference held in Karlsruhe, Germany. ASKI received the Certificate of Merit for the Best Innovation in Financial Services for its success in embedding sustainability and environmental initiatives in its agricultural loan programme.

New financing for SMEs

·      Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) has established a credit line of USD 50 million (EUR 47.2 million) with Philippines’ BDO Unibank (BDO) to promote the environmental preservation (GREEN) scheme.

·      Dutch ING Bank wants to strengthen their green financing, especially in the area of renewable energy. ING Bank reached over EUR 23.8 billion sustainable transitions financed in 2015, 22% higher than in 2014.

·      The 150-MW Burgos Wind Project is in Ilocos Norte, in the municipality of Burgos. The project is sponsored by the Energy Development Cooperation, with an investment of USD 450 million (EUR 425.05 million) of which USD 315 million (EUR 297.53 million) was project financing raised by a syndicate of banks, including ING, who was a lead arranger for the loan for this project. The project will deliver 370 GWh of electricity to approximately two million households and will replace about 200,000 tons of carbon emissions annually.

Status and policies

GHG emissions data

2015 total territorial GHG emissions (excluding land use change and forestry):  133 MtCO2

2015 territorial GHG emissions per capita: 1.1 tCO2/person

2014 CO2 consumption emissions:[1] 131 MtCO

*GHG territorial emissions are Carbon dioxide emissions from the use of coal, oil and gas (combustion and industrial processes), the process of gas flaring and the manufacture of cement.


[1] Carbon dioxide emissions occurring anywhere in the world attributed to the country in which goods and services are consumed. For more information see: Section 2.1.2, The global carbon budget 1959-2015, Le Quéré et al. 2016. 

GDP

2015 GDP:  EUR 275.81 billion

GDP composition by sector:[1]

Agriculture: 10.3%
Industry: 30.9%
Services: 58.8%

Industry subsectors:[2] electronics assembly, garments, footwear, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing, petroleum refining, fishing.

Agricultural products:[3] sugarcane, coconuts, rice, corn, bananas, cassava (manioc, tapioca), pineapples, mangoes; pork, eggs, beef; fish


[1] https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2012.html
[2] https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2090.html
[3] https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2052.html

Climate change policies

National policies

  1. National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP) 2011- 2028
  2. Framework Strategy on Climate Change 2010-2022
  3. Philippine Strategy on Climate Change Adaptation 2009
  4. The People’s Survival Fund Act 2012
  5. Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act 2010
  6. National Renewable Energy Plan 2011-2030
  7. Philippine Energy Plan 2012-2030
  8. National Energy Efficiency Roadmap (2017-2040)
  9. National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (2017-2040)

International mitigation targets 

  • Ratified UNFCCC in 1994
  • Ratified Kyoto Protocol (as a non-Annex I country) in 2003

 

Philippines INDC [1] to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 2015

 The Philippines intends to undertake GHG (CO2e) emissions reduction of about 70% by 2030 relative to its Business-as-Usual (BAU) scenario of 2000-2030.

 This mitigation contribution is conditional upon financial resources including technology transfer and capacity building.

National Climate Change Action Plan focuses on 7 priority areas:

1.     Food Security
2.     Water Sufficiency
3.     Environmental and Ecological Stability
4.     Human Security
5.     Sustainable Energy
6.     Climate-Smart Industries and Services
7.     Knowledge and Capacity Development

Government financing for climate change related initiatives:

People’s Survival Fund (PSF): special fund in the National Treasury that finances climate change adaptation programs and projects with 1 Billion Pesos (EUR 18,363,221).

·      Focusing on adaptation in water resources management, land management, agriculture, fisheries, and health.

·      Local Government Units and local organizations registered by the Climate Change Commission can access these funds.

Climate Change Commission: an independent and autonomous body with the status of a national-agency, to coordinate, monitor, and evaluate government programs and action plans on climate change. Will mainstream climate risk reduction into national, sector, and local development plans.


[1] Intended Nationally Determined Contribution. More information on INDCs here: http://unfccc.int/focus/indc_portal/items/8766.php

Climate change adaptation efforts

The INDC and National Climate Change Action Plan identifies the following adaptation priorities:

·      Climate/disaster and risk and vulnerability assessment

·      Develop climate and disaster-resilient ecosystems

·      Reduce vulnerability to extreme weather events and gradual changes in climate such as sea level rise, rising mean temperature, and changes in precipitation

·      Improve climate resilience in agriculture, fisheries, water management, and health

·      Build communities’ capacities in climate change resilient, including gender-responsive strategies

·      Systematic transition to climate and disaster-resilient social and economic growth 

Climate change impacts

The Philippines is an archipelagic country extremely vulnerable to climate change and natural disasters. It is made up of 7,107 islands divided into three island groups (Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao); and geographically lies in the world’s most cyclone-prone region, experiencing 19 – 20 cyclones per year, of which 7- 9 reach land.[1] The Philippines has a population of 102 million[2] and German Watch Climate Risk Index (CRI) ranked it fifth most vulnerable country from 1994-2014. Agriculture plays an important role in the economy, accounting for 10% of GDP, and employs 55% of the workforce.[3] Climate change vulnerability is worsened by poverty and lack of knowledge about climate change adaptation measures. In 2013, the Philippines experienced cyclone Haiyan (known also as Yolanda), which resulted in over 6,340 deaths, and 1.1 million homes damaged or destroyed; overall 16 million people were affected across 46 provinces. This event caused €2.67 billion dollars in damage.[4] The Philippines are still recovering from this catastrophe, and have a strong national focus on climate change adaptation and building climate and disaster resilience socially and economically.

Main climate change impacts include: 

  • Floods
  • Tropical cyclones
  • Typhoons
  • Sea level rise
  • Sea water intrusion
  • Droughts
  • Biodiversity loss
  • Loss of marine ecosystems and ecosystem services
  • Health issues
  • Displacement

[1]https://www.climatelinks.org/sites/default/files/asset/document/2017_Climate%20Change%20Risk%20Profile_Philippines.pdf
[2] https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rp.html
[3]https://www.climatelinks.org/sites/default/files/asset/document/2017_Climate%20Change%20Risk%20Profile_Philippines.pdf
[4] http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/english/texttrans/2013/11/20131112286248.html#axzz4ZhjpWAJq

Economic, social, and environmental impacts of climate change

Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs):

  • Incur many losses from climatic and natural disasters. Many SMEs have a high awareness of climate change and disaster risks, however they do not uptake external risk financing and have a need for risk reduction training and tools.
  • SME development needs to integrate climate change adaptation/resilience and risk reduction strategies.
  • Lack of drive for Disaster Risk Management (DRM) among households and businesses.
  • Transport and logistics routes will be damaged or disrupted.
  • Heightened price and market volatility.
  • Impacts on employees and consumers – lack of access to basic goods and services
  • Lack of water and energy availability affect operations and productions.
  • Health issues from heat waves and increase of disease will cause decreases in labor and work production.

Agriculture:

  • Rice, wheat and corn yields will likely decline by 10 percent for every 1°C increase over 30°C.
  • Damage to crops or crop loss from floods and droughts will cause food insecurity and higher food prices.
  • From 2006- 2013 the Philippines lost EUR 3.59 billion in accumulated damages in the agriculture sector, from cyclones, storms, and floods.[1]
  • Increase of pest infestations during El Nino events.
  • Sea level rise will lead to soil erosion and reduce soil fertility; also will salinize irrigation water.

Extreme weather events:

  • The Philippines are hit by multiple typhoons and cyclones a year; the effects are exacerbated by coastal erosion and sea level rise.
  • Typhoon Haiyan, known locally as Typhoon Yolanda, which was responsible for more than 6,300 lost lives, over four million displaced citizens, and EUR 1.8 billion in damages in 2013.[2]

Health:

  • The combination of rising temperatures and increased rainfall could cause a rise in dengue, encephalitis, and malaria.
  • Increases in vector and water-borne diseases.
  • Decreases in crop production cause food shortages and can lead to malnutrition in children.

Land resources:

  • Sea levels are rising faster than the global average; meaning low-laying areas could be inundated, leading to a loss of livelihoods.


Marine ecosystems and fisheries:

  • Rising sea surface temperature leads to coral bleaching and ocean acidification.
  • Only 5% of the Philippines’ coral reefs have 75 to 100 percent of live coral cover.[3]
  • Ocean acidification leads to loss of reefs and mangrove habitats, which protect fisheries and reduces coastal erosion: coral reefs are valued at EUR 1.8 billion and mangroves EUR 78 million per year for their contributions to fishing, tourism and storm protection.[4]
  • Decreased fish stocks from sea level rise and changing temperatures; affecting the livelihoods of 60% of the coastal population that depend on marine resources.

Water resources:

  • Increased floods and landslides degrade watersheds and reduce water quality.

Energy and Infrastructure:

  • Drought and high temperatures will reduce hydropower generation.
  • Heat can damage energy facilities and cause disruptions of services such as power outages, which lead to business disruptions.
  • Damage to roads, buildings, and sanitation facilities.

 


[1]https://www.climatelinks.org/sites/default/files/asset/document/2017_Climate%20Change%20Risk%20Profile_Philippines.pdf
[2] https://www.climaterealityproject.org/blog/how-climate-change-affecting-philippines
[3] http://extwprlegs1.fao.org/docs/pdf/phi152934.pdf
[4]https://www.climatelinks.org/sites/default/files/asset/document/2017_Climate%20Change%20Risk%20Profile_Philippines.pdf

International cooperation on climate change

Status: 2017. Inclusive of grants and loans; not an exhaustible list.

     

Partner

 

No. of Projects

Program/ Areas of focus

Funding Amount

Duration

Funding Sources

Global Environment Facility (GEF)

70

Biodiversity, climate change, chemicals and waste, Persistent Organic Pollutants

€438.13 Million

Ongoing

GEF Trust Fund, Special Climate Change Fund

The Global Environment Facility Small Grants Program (GEF SGP)

 

384

Climate change, biodiversity, adaptation, water resources management

€5.93 Million

1993 – Ongoing

 

GEF SGP

World Bank

2

Partnership for Market Readiness (PMR)

€5.46 Million

2015-2019

World Bank

Thailand HCFC Phaseout Project (Phase I

€22.47 Million

2014- 2018

UN REDD

1

Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation readiness preparation

€3.40 Million

Ongoing

Forest Carbon Partnership Facility/World Bank

Clean Air Coalition to Reduce Short-Lived Climate Pollutants (CCAC) & International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)

 

Mitigation strategies in rice production, in collaboration with the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (Phase II)

 

n/a

2016 - 2018

CCAC, IRRI, and CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS)

 

 

UNDP

 

2

The Biodiversity Finance Initiative

€500,613

2014-2017

EU, Governments of Germany, Norway, Switzerland, Flanders

Low Emission Capacity Building (LECB)

€878,435

2013-2015

Government of Germany, Government of Australia, EU

International Climate Initiative (IKI)

30

SCP, low carbon development, green banking, biodiversity, agriculture, adaptation plans

Millions

Ongoing

 Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) 

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH. (GIZ)

 

4

 

Climate change policy support

€3.26 Million

2013-2017

 

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB)

Risk Based National Adaptation Plan

€3.75 Million

2015-2019

Extreme event management (water disasters)

€3.28 Million

2013-2017

Advancing and Measuring SCP for a low Carbon Economy in Middle Income and Newly Industrialized Countries

€ 2 Million

2015- 2018

NAMA Facility

2

Thailand Refrigeration and Air Conditioning NAMA (RAC NAMA)

€ 14.7 Million

 

 

2016-2020

 

GreenRAC Innovation Fund (GRIF), Government of the Federal Republic of Germany, UK Department of Energy & Climate Change (DECC)

Thai Rice NAMA - Detailed project preparation - DPP

€ 0.25 Million

2017

 

Royal Thai Government, private sector