|Project title||Sector||SCP practice|
|AEMAS||Utilities sector||Product design for sustainability|
|Efficient Air Conditioners / ASEAN SHINE||Electrical equipment industry||Eco-labels, Product design for sustainability|
|Myanmar Cook Stove||Cross cutting issues||Creating Demand for Better Products|
|SMART Myanmar||Textile and leather industry||Product design for sustainability, Sustainable Supply Chain Management|
|SMART Myanmar II||Textile and leather industry||Sustainable Supply Chain Management, Creating Demand for Better Products|
|Sustainable Freight and Logistics||Sustainable Supply Chain Management|
Mr. Sein Htoon Linn
Director, Planning and Statistics Department
Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry
Under SWITCH-Asia’s Regional Policy Support Component, UNEP’s main partner in Myanmar is the Planning and Statistics Department of the Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry. While UNEP has existing activities in Myanmar on climate change and energy areas, policy support on Sustainable Consumption and Production has not yet been provided in the country. This makes Myanmar a great candidate country for policy support in 2015.
Status of SCP policy framework
Myanmar has had fast paced growth even in the wake of the economic crisis at 6.8%, but extreme poverty remains over 20% as in other neighboring countries such as Lao PDR and in South Asia, with the country still classified as a Least Developed Country (LDC).
(Source : EU Multi-Annual Indicative Programme for Asia, 2014.)
According to the OECD, the Framework for Economic and Social Reforms (FESR) identifies policy priorities for the Country, acting as a bridge between the Fifth Five-Year Plan (2011-12 to 2015-16) and the reform-oriented National Comprehensive Development Plan (2011-31) and the future five-year plans that will support it. The FESR reflects the progress that the new government has made since it was elected in March 2011 and its continuing commitment to the socio-economic reform, with the Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development coordinating and drafting the FESR after consulting with other ministries and departments. The OECD also reports that in the current FESR the priorities are mainly in the areas of finance, fiscal and monetary policy, trade and investment, private sector development, health and education, food security and agriculture, governance and transparency, mobile phones and the Internet, infrastructure, and government effectiveness and efficiency.
(Source: “Policy challenges in implementing national development plans in Myanmar” chapter of the Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India 2015: Strengthening Institutional Capacity, 2015. Online here).
In Myanmar, the government department responsible for environmental affairs and sustainable development is the National Commission for Environmental Affairs (NCEA), formed in 1990. The sustainable development policy framework Myanmar Agenda 21 was formulated and adopted in 1997 by NCEA in conjunction with UN agencies. Little information appears available on the degree to which Agenda 21 has been implemented. A UN document titled Natural Resource Aspects of Sustainable Development in Myanmar (UN, 1999) summarizes some of the guidelines on sustainable consumption and sustainable tourism, but does not reveal whether much progress has been made. The UNEP SWITCH-Asia Policy Needs Assessment revealed that there are widespread barriers for the implementation of the sustainable consumption and tourism guidelines.
National Sustainable Development Strategy
Myanmar also has a National Sustainable Development Strategy (2009), which includes proposed strategic measures for making various sectors (e.g. agriculture, forestry, fisheries, mining, tourism, energy and waste management) more sustainable.
National Environmental Policy
The country’s National Environmental Policy was established in 1994, and notes the importance of environmental protection in making development decision, and the need to preserve resources for current and future generations.
Fifth Five-Year Plan (2011/12 to 2015/16)
Myanmar implemented its Fifth Five-Year Plan (2011/12 to 2015/16) for economic development in 2011 – this document does not appear to be available online, but press releases relating to it suggest that it addresses both economic and environmental issues, including microcredit schemes, safer drinking water, production of biogas and solar energy, farm mechanization and environmental conservation.
(Source : UN Public Administration Network, 2011 Press Release.)
The OECD highlights that the main Policy challenges of implementing the national plan in Myanmar include the need for i) reliable indicators and measurements of government performance to make planning and monitoring effective; ii) strengthening cooperation with the private sector with finance and Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) to enable business startups and SMEs, as well as iii) strengthening develop policy planning and budgeting especially for agricultural and education sectors.
Myanmar has several policies relating to environmental sustainability for particular sectors, though in general they do not refer specifically to SCP.
Food and agriculture
Myanmar has a range of policies, laws and rules relating to food and agriculture, including the Myanmar Forest Policy 1995, the Forest Law 1992 and Forest Rules 1995, the Territorial Sea and Maritime Zones Law 1977, the Freshwater Fisheries Law 1992, the Marine Fisheries Law 1990, the Fishing Rights of Foreign Vessels Law 1989, the National Food Law 1997, the Pesticide Law 1990 and the Law Relating to Aquaculture 1989 (UN, 1999). Because of weak governance and a lack of human capacity, especially at the local level, the implementation of national policies at all levels from subnational to local appears to be difficult.
Buildings and construction
Myanmar has a comparatively low rate of urbanization (es. 33% UNEP Live), is lacking substantial national infrastructure and will have to make large investments into urban and transport infrastructure in coming decades to avoid the large problems of urban air and water pollution, waste, and traffic many of its neighbours are struggling with as they modernize, incomes grow, and lifestyles change accordingly.
Mobility and transport
The UN country profile on Myanmar (2002) noted that the country had programmes planned to expand transport infrastructure, improve traffic and fuel efficiency, reduce emissions from transport and provide better support for the use of non-motorized forms of transport. The document also stated that CNG and LPG had been implemented as alternative fuels for vehicles.
Manufacturing and consumer goods
Myanmar has a range of laws relating to manufacturing and consumer goods, including the Factories Act 1951, the Myanmar Tourism Law 1990, and the Promotion of Cottage Industries Law 1991. The manufacturing base in the country is still fairly small but may grow in the near future. There is also considerable growth occurring in the mining sector, which will require attention to avoid environmental and social impacts. The middle class in Myanmar is small and many people live in poverty, especially in rural areas, hence sustainability is not a topic on the agenda. Many of Myanmar’s political strategies are aiming for economic growth and increasing the standard of living, especially based on the growth of this sector, making economic growth a higher priority than environmental considerations for many.
Urban development and land use
Myanmar has several city development laws (e.g. City of Yangon Development Law 1990, City of Mandalay Development Law 2002), but no apparent nationwide policies on urban development and land use. Myanmar’s agricultural land was nationalized in 1948 with the passing of the Land Nationalization Act, which was then amended in 1953 (Taylor, 2009). According to James (2003) ‘The most important reform ... is that of security of land tenure, which research in developing countries has shown has a direct correlation with agricultural productivity. At present, all land is titularly owned by the state ... under a variety of leasing arrangements being granted to individuals and community groups’ (James, 2003, page 8). She also asserts that ‘the whole question of land and landlessness needs to be urgently addressed if the government’s objectives of increasing agricultural production and export earnings, and improving rural livelihoods are to be realised’ (page 8). The UN country profile for Myanmar (2002) stated that there was ‘widespread land degradation as population increase demands frequent land uses which are not suited to the agro-ecological conditions and due to incorrect land husbandry practices’ (UN, 2002, page 23) and that there was a low level of interaction between the various agencies involved with land use issues.
Energy, water, waste
Myanmar has several policies, laws and plans relating to energy, water and waste. These include the Myanmar Energy Policy (date unknown), the Public Health Law 1990, the Water Tax and Embankment Law 1992, and the Air Pollution and Water Pollution Control Plan of the Ministry of Industry I (date unknown) (UN, 1999).
The Myanmar Ministry of Energy’s web site lists the following components of the country’s energy policy (Myanmar Ministry of Energy, 2001):
- To maintain the status of energy independence
- To employ hydroelectric power as one of the vital sources of energy sufficiency
- To generate and distribute more electricity for economic development
- To save nonrenewable energy for future energy sufficiency of the nation
- To promote efficient utilization of energy and impress on energy conservation
- To prevent deforestation caused by excess use of fuelwood and charcoal
The web site notes that while the country has significant potential for harnessing hydropower, wind energy, solar energy and geothermal energy, use of these is generally at initial stages. At the time the web page was written (2001) wood fuel was said to be the main source of domestic energy in Myanmar, though it was noted that biogas generation was increasingly being encouraged to provide an alternative to fuelwood (Myanmar Ministry of Energy, 2001).
According to the FAO’s web site, no institution has overall responsibility for water management in Myanmar. Several agencies are involved, including the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation (MOAI), the Water Resources Utilization Department, the Irrigation Department and the Agricultural Planning Department (FAO, 2011). According to the FAO, a national level Myanmar Water Resources Committee is planned for the country.
The Myanmar Agenda 21 document does not appear to list any national policies on waste or waste management (UN, 1999). UNEP (n.d.) shows the following:
- Pollution Control and Cleansing Rule
- The Protection of Environment Directive
- The Municipal Act
- The Union of Myanmar Public Heath Act.
Resource consumption and production
Main Resource Consumption and Resource Efficiency Indicators (2010)
|Subject Area||Total||Per person||Per USD$ of GDP|
|Domestic Material Consumption, DMC
(tonnes, tonnes per capita, kgr per 1USD$)
(kilotonnes,tonnes per capita, kgr per 1USD$)
|Total Primary Energy Supply, TPES
(Petajoules, Gigajoules per capita, Megajoules per 1USD$)
(Trillion litres, Kilolitres per capita, Litres per 1USD$)
|Population density 2015 (UNESA 2012 revision), population per sq.km||80|
|GDP per capita (USD), 2013 WB||NA|
|HDI Rank (2013) UNDP||0.524|
|Arable land (hectares per person) WB 2012||0.2|
|Forest cover in % (2010), UNSTATS||48|
|Material intensity (2010)UNEP||7.84|
|Per-capita energy use (kg of oil equivalent per capita) 2011, WB||268|
|Energy intensity (total primary energy consumption per USD of GDP) 2011, EIA||14677.938|
|GHG intensity (2010) UNEP||16.04|
|CO2 emissions (metric tone per capita), 2010, WB||0.2|
|Number of Middle Class consumers % (2010), ADB||NA|
|Number of people with income < 2USD/day (PPP, USD, %), 2010, ADB||NA|
Trends in Resource Consumption and Resource Efficiency Indicators (1970-2010)
In panel a) Myanmar’s GDP grew much faster than any of the other indicators, followed by DMC. A notable feature of panel a) is the decrease in GHG emissions, indication that absolute decoupling of economic growth from GHG emissions was achieved by Myanmar over the period 1970 to 2010. From panel b) it is clear that the very rapid growth in GDP was not accompanied by a proportional increase in DE, while panel c) further indicates that neither was it matched by an increase in per capita MF, with those material categories most usually associated with increasing wealth, fossil fuels, metal ores, and non-metallic minerals all decreasing. This is a very unusual result and raises two points which must be kept in mind when interpreting these summaries. The first is that the measure of GDP used is exchange rate based, and so to some extent can reflect decisions by governments to declare fix exchange rates at arbitrary levels. The second consideration is that the data on materials and energy usage is only as complete as the data furnished by national governments. Taking Myanmar’s statistics at face value, panels d), e) and f) indicate moderate to very strong relative decoupling on all MI, EI, and GHGI measures.
(Source: UNEP CSIRO Indicators for a Resource Efficient and Green Asia and the Pacific, 2015).
Key references relevant to SCP
UNEP's relevant activities
The information in the country profiles herein have been obtained through research with firsthand and secondhand sources. The information presented herein cannot be considered as official policy of governments or other official bodies. The SWITCH-Asia Programme cannot be held responsible for the content of the sites to which it provides links or for the availability of servers or links. Information is being continuously updated in order to maintain an up to date country profile. If you would like to contribute information for this profile or have any further comments, please send an email to: SWITCH-PSC@unep.org
Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) account for 99% of all enterprises in the country. With 70% of the total workforce in the country employed by SMEs, they play an important role in the socio-economic development of Myanmar.
A survey done by DEval , the German Institute for Development Evaluation, found that in 2015, 54% of urban SMEs were engaged in manufacturing, with a focus on machinery, vehicles, metal products, 12% and food and beverages, 12% and textiles and shoes (10%). In the service sector, most firms are restaurants, hotels, (16%) and retail (14%).
The SME Development Law of 2015 has re-defined the SME sector, which has led to the development of several committees to promote the development of SMEs.
 Deutsches Evaluierungsinstitut der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit: https://www.deval.org/en/
 German Institute for Development Evaluation (DEval). (2015). Small and Medium Enterprise Survey Myanmar 2015. German Institute For Development Evaluation (Deval), Bonn. Retrieved from https://www.deval.org/files/content/Dateien/Evaluierung/Berichte/2015_DEval_SME%20Report.pdf
Myanmar’s underdeveloped financial environment constricts SME lending and growth
- The financial system in Myanmar is under-developed with only 3% percentage of the population holding bank accounts (MiSys Fusion Banking 2015).
- The average level of industrialisation is low; industry only contributes a fifth of the country’s GDP. Only 34% of the population has access to grid quality electricity, and 38,000 villages with no access at all.
- Only around 20% of enterprises receive financial support from banks (GIZ 2015).
- International support in the form of financing and capacity building has been the main support for SMEs.
- The Small and Medium Industrial Development Bank (SMIDB), the bank for lending out to SMEs, has not yet played a significant role in disbursing funds from international development agencies to SMEs.
- Banks such as Yoma Bank or Kanbawza Bank have been lending to SMEs but their reach is small.
- Micro Finance Institutions (MFIs) are also facing challenges – this restricts the growth of their loan portfolio and their appetite for SME lending.
 International Institute for Environment and Development. (2016). Energy poverty in Myanmar: only 34% of the population have grid quality electricity. Retrieved from https://www.iied.org/energy-poverty-myanmar-only-34-population-have-grid-quality-electricity
- Inadequate infrastructure (ie: electrification)
- Underdeveloped financial system
- Lack of financial literacy
- Lack of skilled manpower
- SMEs lack knowledge of financing options
- SMEs do not yet feel the need to adopt SCP practices or to improve energy efficiency (demand is negligible)
- Strict funding requirements constrain the access to SME finance
- Time-consuming loan appraisal process and the coast of loan application make external finance unattractive for SMEs.
- Lack of credit assessment and risk management tools makes it difficult to assess SMEs’ applications.
- Financial institutions do not perceive green finance as a business opportunity.
- Inadequate legal framework hinders the development of financial products for SMEs.
- The government has set a target to achieve universal electricity access by 2030. SMEs that can provide on and off-grid electrification services or products have an opportunity to play a key role in achieving this target, but availability of funding and inconsistency in policy implementations will be a restricting factor.
- There is a clear need for more intervention on the part of the government to support the SMEs. The regulations related to funding sources, interest rate caps, and loan sizes are unfavourable for the SMEs.
- Unless the overall financial sector is strong enough, interest in green finance cannot be generated.
- Myanmar has the opportunity to learn and benefit from from neighbouring countries' experience, where multiple initiatives across sectors for greening the economy have been initiated.
Main institutions providing Green Finance
- Central Bank of Myanmar
- Small and Medium Industrial Development Bank (SMIDB)
- Myanmar Insurance
- Yoma Bank
- Kanbawza Bank
- ACLEDA MFI Myanmar Company (subsidiary of Cambodia’s ACLEDA Bank)
- The German Agency for International Cooperation / Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)
- International Finance Corporation (IFC)
New financing for SMEs / innovative financing mechanisms
IFC launched the first phase of the Lighting Myanmar Programme in June 2016, with aims to develop the off-grid solar market in Central Myanmar. The programme will assess the market for solar products by studying consumer profiles, demand, willingness and ability to pay. It will educate the consumers about solar products.
Launched in 2015 by the World Bank, the project is designed to support the government’s energy access programme with both a grid extension (EUR 353.2 million) and a strong “distributed renewable energy” component (EUR 162 million). The distributed renewable energy component is concentrated on the remote regions of Chin, Kachin, Kayin, Shan, Rakhine, Taninthayi and Sagaing. The distributed renewable energy component involves the provision of solar home systems, mini-grids, electricity connections to community buildings and public street lights.
Two local solar firms, i.e. Suntac Technologies and MMiC are participating in this project. In February 2013, the ADB has launched a 30 month demonstration project,covering 1,500 households in three regions – Magway, Mandalay and Sagaing. The project’s main components are the setting up of solar micro grids, for which ADB procures the technology and products from private companies, and the development of least cost energy access and off-grid investment plans.
SMART Myanmar is a four-year project (2016-2019) funded by the European Union (building on the initial SMART project implemented between 2013-2015); the project actively supports and promotes sustainable consumption and production (SCP) of garments and has a component promoting green financial products and services.
Status and policies
2015 total territorial GHG emissions *(excluding land use change and forestry): 14 MtCO2
2015 territorial GHG emissions per capita: 0.3 tCO2/person
2014 CO2 consumption emissions: no data MtCO2
*GHG territorial emissions are Carbon dioxide emissions from the use of coal, oil and gas (combustion and industrial processes), the process of gas flaring and the manufacture of cement.
 CO2 Emissions | Global Carbon Atlas. (2016). Globalcarbonatlas.org. Retrieved from http://www.globalcarbonatlas.org/en/CO2-emissions
 Carbon dioxide emissions occurring anywhere in the world attributed to the country in which goods and services are consumed. For more information see: Section 2.1.2, The global carbon budget 1959-2015, Le Quéré et al. 2016.
2016 GDP: EUR 61.57 billion
GDP composition by sector:
Agricultural products: rice, pulses, beans, sesame, groundnuts; sugarcane; fish and fish products; hardwood.
Industry sub-sectors: agricultural processing; wood and wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; cement, construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer; oil and natural gas; garments; jade and gems.
 The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency. (2017). Cia.gov. Retrieved 8 August 2017, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bm.html
Industries’ contribution to climate change
Agriculture, fisheries, and livestock play an important role in socio-economic development in Myanmar and these sectors require climate resilient responses. By 2030, Myanmar wants to attain climate smart agriculture, with fisheries, and livestock systems maintaining productivity and growth and at the same time maximizing GHG reduction.
Increasing sustainable natural resource management and protecting forest ecosystems present opportunities for GHG reductions. By 2030 Myanmar aims to enhance support to biodiversity and livelihoods development.
 Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation (MoNREC). (2016). http://myanmarccalliance.org/mcca/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/MCCA-Strategy_ActionPlan_11July2016V1.pdf Nay Pyi Taw: The Republic of the Union of Myanmar.
Climate change policies
- National Sustainable Development Strategy 2009
- National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA) to Climate Change 2012
- National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan 2015
- National Health and Action Plan
- Myanmar Action Plan for Disaster Risk Reduction 2012
- National Climate Smart Agriculture Strategy 2015
- Myanmar Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (MCCSAP) 2016-2030 (under preparation)
- Green Growth Strategy 2016 (under preparation)
- National Environment Policy (under revision)
International mitigation targets:
Ratified UNFCCC in 1994
Ratified Kyoto Protocol in 2003
Signed Paris Agreement in 2016 (not yet ratified)
Myanmar’s INDC to the UNFCCC:
Myanmar has agreed to carry out mitigation measures in the forestry and energy sector, contingent upon the help of the international community, including in technology transfer and capacity building. Myanmar also requires assistance on calculating its exact GHG emission reduction target, based on the mitigation actions below:
- By 2030 increase of Reserved Forest (RF) by 30% of total national land area and Protected Area System (PAS) will be 10% of total national land area.
- Increase the share of hydroelectric generation; to 9.4 GW by 2030
- Rural electrification with use of at least 30% renewable sources
- Mitigate emissions from the industrial production sector: realize a 20% electricity saving potential by 2030 of the total estimated electricity consumption
- Distribute approximately 260,000 energy efficient cook stoves between 2016 and 2030
Government financing for climate change related initiatives:
Myanmar Climate Change Strategy & Action Plan (MCCSAP) states that:
Financing for climate change actions is predominantly coming from international sources primarily from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and some bilateral development partners.
International climate funds such as the Adaptation Fund and Green Climate Fund have established Direct Access modality for the country to develop and implement climate change adaptation and mitigation projects.
Various UN organizations are supporting access to climate finance for design and implementation of climate change projects in Myanmar, such as UNDEP, UNEP, UN-Habitat and FAO.
Myanmar states that potential climate financing from own sources is possible only if the national sector-specific projects can integrate climate change and pass through the screening by the National Planning Department. Otherwise without policy support towards allocation finance for climate change, it may not be able to be met by allocating its own resources.
 INDCs - Intended Nationally Determined Contributions. Unfccc.int. 2017. Retrieved from http://unfccc.int/focus/indc_portal/items/8766.php
The Republic of the Union of Myanmar 2015. Myanmar's Intended Nationally Determined Contribution. Retrieved from http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/Myanmar/1/Myanmar's%20INDC.pdf
 Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation (MoNREC). (2016). http://myanmarccalliance.org/mcca/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/MCCA-Strategy_ActionPlan_11July2016V1.pdf Page 72. Nay Pyi Taw: The Republic of the Union of Myanmar.
Climate change adaptation efforts
Myanmar’s INDC includes an adaptation component, and is currently undertaking the following adaptation projects:
- Climate smart agriculture; developing resilience in rice varieties to flood and drought.
- “Addressing Climate Change Risks on Water Resources and Food Security in the Dry Zone of Myanmar” funded by the Adaptation Fund and implemented by UNDP with line ministries, CSOs, communities and other stakeholders
- Rehabilitation and restoration of degraded land and reserved forest through community participation
- Contribution to climate change resilience and socio-economic development of local communities living the central dry zone of Myanmar
- Project for Mangrove Rehabilitation Plan for the enhancement of disaster prevention in coastal and delta areas
- Building capacity and awareness for climate change and disaster risk reduction
Myanmar’s National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) establishes four priority level sectors:
- Build resilience in the agricultural sector, develop early warning systems and forest preservation measures
- Public health protection and water resource management
- Coastal zone protection
- Energy and industry sectors and biodiversity protection
Climate change impacts
Myanmar is a Least Developed Nation according to the UN, with a population of 56.9 million people; and is highly exposed severe weather events and climate change impacts. Coastal zones are vulnerable to sea level rise and cyclones, and lowlands and dry central zones are most impacted by droughts and floods. 85% of the population that relies on climate sensitive activities will be affected, and high concentrations of the population live in the delta and coastal belt regions that are the most exposed to climate change impacts. Myanmar has 43% forest cover but the country also has the third highest deforestation rates in the world; there is high potential of climate change mitigation through reducing deforestation.
Main climate change impacts include:
- Heavy rains, erratic rainfall
- Floods and storm surge
- Extreme temperatures, temperature rise
- Sea level rise
- Salinity intrusion
- Biodiversity loss
 The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency. (2017). Cia.gov. Retrieved 8 August 2017, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bm.html
 UNDP in Myanmar. (2017). Myanmar Launches the UN-REDD National Programme to Protect Forests and Contribute to Global Efforts to Address Climate Change. Retrieved from http://www.mm.undp.org/content/myanmar/en/home/presscenter/pressreleases/2017/01/27/myanmar-launches-the-un-redd-national-programme-to-protect-forests-and-contribute-to-global-efforts-to-address-climate-change.html
 Myanmar Climate Change Alliance. (2017). Impact of Climate Change and the Case of Myanmar | Myanmar Climate Change Alliance. Myanmarccalliance.org. Retrieved from http://myanmarccalliance.org/en/climate-change-basics/impact-of-climate-change-and-the-case-of-myanmar/
Economic, social, and environmental impacts of climate change
- Agriculture contributes 36% of Myanmar’s GDP and employs approximately 60% of the population. Temperature rise, reduced rainfall, and extreme weather events will have negative impacts on the agriculture sector and on food security.
- It has been found that every 1 Degree Celsius rise in temperature causes a 10% yield decrease in rice, being the main crop in Myanmar. By 2050 the annual mean temperature is estimated to rise by 3.5 degrees Celsius, meaning a potential 1.81 million tonnes reduction of rice production by 2030.
- Extreme weather events like floods will cause crop loss and damage infrastructure.
- Drought and shorter rainy seasons will lower crop yields and decrease river and fresh water resources, especially affecting the dry central region.
Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs):
- Extreme events like floods and storms damage infrastructure and facilities.
- Interruptions to business transactions.
- Transport and logistics routes are damaged or disrupted.
- Heightened prices and market volatility.
- Impacts on employees and consumers – lack of access to basic goods and services
- Lack of water and energy availability affect operations and productions.
- Health issues from heat waves and increase of disease will cause decreases in labor and work production.
Sea level rise
- Adversely impacts agricultural production. If the sea level rose only half a meter, the Ayeyarwaddy Delta, where most rice is cultivated and the large part of the population is concentrated; land would be reduced by 10 km2.
- Rising sea levels would also cause salt-water intrusion, coastal erosion and inundation.
- Seawater intrusion will affect groundwater and cause salinization of rice fields.
- Reduced water availability will adversely impact agriculture, as 90% of the sector relies on water.
- Degradation of fresh water resources will reduce crop yields and also cause health issues.
Increasing frequency of extreme weather events:
- Cyclone Nargis in 2008 damaged 4 million hectares of rice, which translates to 57% of the country’s agricultural production.
- Floods in the summer of 2015 displaced 1.6 million people and damaged agriculture and infrastructure.
Forest ecosystem services:
- 70% of the population directly and indirectly relies on the forest for resources for their livelihoods.
- Intense heat, reduced rainfall, and salinity intrusion will damage forests and cause decline in density of trees and mangroves.
- Loss of tourism industry potential.
- Contributes 10% to GDP and provides work for 28 million people (5% of the population).
- Marine ecosystems will be degraded and fisheries will collapse.
- Rising sea temperature will cause differences in distributions of fish.
- Loss of ecosystem services.
- Reduced income and employment.
- Increase in vector and water borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, and Hepatitis A.
- Inability to work and further loss of life due to heat-related illnesses or natural disasters.
 Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation (MoNREC). (2016). http://myanmarccalliance.org/mcca/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/MCCA-Strategy_ActionPlan_11July2016V1.pdf Page 14. Nay Pyi Taw: The Republic of the Union of Myanmar.
 USAID. (2017). Climate change risk profile Burma Factsheet. Retrieved from https://www.climatelinks.org/resources/climate-change-risk-profile-burma
 Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation (MoNREC). (2016). http://myanmarccalliance.org/mcca/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/MCCA-Strategy_ActionPlan_11July2016V1.pdf Page 17. Nay Pyi Taw: The Republic of the Union of Myanmar.
 Ibid. Page 10.
International cooperation on climate change
Status: 2017. Inclusive of grants and loans; not an exhaustible list.
No. of Projects
Program / Areas of focus
Global Environment Facility
Biodiversity, climate change, land degradation, Persistent Organic Pollutants
GEF Trust Fund,
Least Developed Countries Fund
EU/Global Climate Change Alliance
USAID Global Climate Change Program
Sustainable forestry, climate change adaptation, low emission development strategies (LEDS)
UN REDD+ National Program
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation
Government of Norway
Developing a new National Environmental Policy
Government of Finland
Building disaster resilient communities/ Disaster Risk Reduction
UNDP, UN Habitat, Government of Finland
Adaptation Fund implemented by UNDP
Addressing Climate Change Risks in Water Resources and Food Security in the Dry Zone of Myanmar
2/2015 – 2019
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GIZ)
Promoting rural electrification
2016 – 2018
German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)
Adapting agricultural value chains to climate change
Building Resilience and Adaptation to Climate Extremes and Disasters
2015 - 2018
UK Department of International Development (DFID)