Indonesia

Project title Sector SCP practice
ACMFN Cross cutting issues Cleaner Production
AEMAS Utilities sector Product design for sustainability
Clean Batik Initiative Textile and leather industry Product design for sustainability, Sustainable Supply Chain Management
Efficient Air Conditioners / ASEAN SHINE Electrical equipment industry Eco-labels, Product design for sustainability
Hand-Woven Eco-Textiles Textile and leather industry Business and products for the poor, Sustainable Supply Chain Management
Lead Elimination Project Chemical sector Cleaner Production
Prospect Indonesia Wood-based industry Product design for sustainability, Sustainable Supply Chain Management
SCOPE - Soybean Processing Food and beverage Cleaner Production
Timber Indonesia Wood-based industry Eco-labels, Sustainable Supply Chain Management

Focal point

Mr. Noer Adi Wardojo
Director/Head, Standards and Technology, 
Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Indonesia   

SWITCH-Asia RPSC

In Indonesia, the SWITCH-Asia Programme's policy support is implemented through a National Policy Support Component (NPSC). Under the NPSC, a range of coordinated SCP activities are being implemented in Indonesia. For this policy support, the main partner in Indonesia is the Ministry of Environment and Forests.

Based on the SCP policy needs assessment, Indonesia has started their SCP policy support with the following activities lead by a National Policy Support Component under SWITCH-Asia:

  • Creating the framework for a consolidated national SCP policy
  • Support to SCP policy implementation
  • Financial mechanisms, incentives and policy instruments for SCP promotion

The National Policy Support Component is closing its activities in early 2015 and discussions are underway to broaden policy support activities in the country under the Regional Policy Support Component in 2015-2016.

Status of SCP policy framework

Indonesia has been one of the leading Asian countries on SCP. It is one of the first Asian countries to actively lead and represent the region in the Rio+20 10 Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production (10YFP) and in 2014 also launched its own national strategy for SCP with a similar name.

It was adopted by the Ministry of Environment and the National Body for Planning and Development (BAPPENAS) on 5 June 2013. Since then, the uptake of SCP in the national development policy has advanced further: the national 10YFP is now reflected in the Presidential Decree Number 43 of 2014 as one of the seven cross-cutting priorities in the first year of the Mid-term National Development Plan of 2015-2019, still to be formally adopted by the President. Joint planning and implementation are being undertaken by the government, the business and industry sector and civil society to implement the national 10YFP. The national framework puts forward a vision where quality of life is improved towards sustainable development and builds upon three main goals: 1) the inclusion of SCP into national development planning; 2) asset management and service to stakeholders for SCP implementation: “SCP Resource Pool Indonesia”; and 3) “Quick Wins” with thematic programs: “Ecolabel & Green Public Procurement”, “Green Industry”, “Green Building”, “Green Tourism”, and “Waste management”.

One of the sectors where the government is particularly active is sustainable buildings and construction. The government is applying green public procurement practices in the buildings and construction area. It relies on a life-cycle approach that takes into account not only the construction but also the usage phase of the building. The country is likewise actively engaged on consumer information on sustainability as one of the co-leads of the 10YFP programme on Consumer Information through its Ministry of Environment and Forestry. In addition, SCP indicators for eco-tourism as well as a Green Hotel Award programme have been put in place as part of the Green Tourism programme. Moreover, the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Industry join forces to develop cleaner industrial parks and production.

Indonesia has a driver role in the Southeast Asian region. The country is the lead organizer of the Forum on SCP of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). This annual meeting, for which Indonesia also acts as the Secretariat jointly with UNEP, aims at facilitating experience sharing and cooperation on SCP implementation within ASEAN. The event is since 2011 bringing together representatives of small and medium enterprises, actors of the public and private sectors, as well as representatives of governments and ministries. Furthermore, ASEAN countries formulated an Integrated Food Security Framework and Strategic Plan of Actions to secure a stable access to food supply for household based on sustainable food production.

At the international level, Indonesia is actively engaged as a member of the 10YFP Board.  Indonesia has reaffirmed the importance of SCP as a universal and central condition to sustainable development, particularly in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). H.E. Balthasar Kambuaya, Minister of Environment of Indonesia said that “Without SCP, SDGs cannot be achieved.”

At the sectoral level there have also been many policy advancements on SCP and the SWITCH-Asia National Policy Support Component has lead the development of assessments on SCP policies in Indonesia to track progress on key policy issues. For example, the 2013 baseline study on SCP policies in Indonesia titled Mapping the State of SCP Policies and Tools in Indonesia is available here: http://www.switch-asia.eu/fileadmin/user_upload/Final_Baseline_Study_Indonesia_.pdf

(Source: 10YFP website)

Resource consumption and production

Main Resource Consumption and Resource Efficiency Indicators (2010)

Population (millions) 242326
GDP (billion USD) 846834
GDP is in USD exchange rate based on year 2005 and deflated.
Source: UNSD database.
Subject Area Total Per person Per USD$ of GDP
Domestic Material Consumption, DMC
(tonnes, tonnes per capita, kgr per 1USD$)
84,653,649 3.15 8.22
GHG emissions
(kilotonnes,tonnes per capita, kgr per 1USD$)
32,738 1.22 3.18
Total Primary Energy Supply, TPES
(Petajoules, Gigajoules per capita, Megajoules per 1USD$)
427.50 15.92 41.51
Water Use
(Trillion litres, Kilolitres per capita, Litres per 1USD$)
9.50 353.76 922.17
Subject Area Indicator
Population density 2015 (UNESA 2012 revision), population per sq.km 134
GDP per capita (USD), 2013 WB 3,475.30
HDI Rank (2013) UNDP 0.684
Arable land (hectares per person) WB 2012 0.1
Forest cover in % (2010), UNSTATS 52
Material intensity (2010)UNEP 4.28
Per-capita energy use (kg of oil equivalent per capita) 2011, WB 857
Energy intensity (total primary energy consumption per USD of GDP) 2011, EIA 15,738.99
GHG intensity (2010) UNEP 1.97
CO2 emissions (metric tone per capita), 2010, WB 1.8
Number of Middle Class consumers % (2010), ADB 47
Number of people with income < 2USD/day (PPP, USD, %), 2010, ADB 53

Trends in Resource Consumption and Resource Efficiency Indicators (1970-2010)

DE: Domestic Extraction;
MI: Material Intensity of the economy;
MF: Material Footprint.
All other abbreviations explained in the table above

For Indonesia, Panel a) shows that GDP has grown considerably faster than the other four overview indicators, with the possible exception of GHGs. The highly erratic year-to-year values for GHGs (a result of large variable components from fires/clearing/land-use change) appear to roughly track GDP until the most recent years. Growth in DE in panel b) is slightly slower than the growth in DMC seen in panel a), indicating a growing dependence on imported primary resources, although DE of fossil fuels grew more rapidly in relative terms. Panel c) shows strong growth in MF derailed by the Asian economic crisis of 1997 and subsequent events in Indonesia, with a relatively strong rebound from 2001 on. Comparing MF to DE indicates that Indonesia’s DE is more than that required, in gross terms, to support local primary material requirements. Panels d), e) and f) show roughly static to marginally decreasing intensities for materials, energy, and GHGs on both conventional and footprint based measures. It is also evident in panels d), e) and f) that footprint based measures attribute considerably lower consumption of materials and energy, and emissions of GHGs, to Indonesia than DMC/TPES based measures.

(Source: UNEP CSIRO Indicators for a Resource Efficient and Green Asia and the Pacific, 2015). 

Key references relevant to SCP

UNEP's relevant activities

The information in the country profiles herein have been obtained through research with firsthand and secondhand sources. The information presented herein cannot be considered as official policy of governments or other official bodies. The SWITCH-Asia Programme cannot be held responsible for the content of the sites to which it provides links or for the availability of servers or links. Information is being continuously updated in order to maintain an up to date country profile. If you would like to contribute information for this profile or have any further comments, please send an email to: SWITCH-PSC@unep.org

Status

Introduction

Indonesia has more than 56.5 million SMEs more than half of which are active in primary industries, namely fishery, agriculture, and forestry, and one third of total SMEs are in trade. The number of SMEs has been growing steadily at about 2% p.a. from 2007 to 2012.

Total establishments account for 99.9% of local enterprises, contribute close to 60% to the gross domestic product (GDP) and absorb over 95% of the workforce (Ministry of Cooperatives and Small and Medium Enterprises). 

No dedicated platform for SME listing exists in Indonesia, and the country’s capital markets remain small compared to the overall size of the financial sector, and also mod­est in terms of the country’s GDP and status as a middle income country.

SME green finance development in Indonesia

  • In 2013 commercial loans to SMEs represent­ed about 19% of total loans, of which 6% were targeted at the manufacturing sector.
  • A 2014 survey among 29 banks (commercial and Islamic) reported that green finance represents only 1.37% of the total lending portfolio (2013), up from 1.19% in 2011. Sector recipients for green funds were mini hydro (26.08%), geo­thermal (25.72%), and environmentally efficient machin­ery (19.64%). (OJK, 2013) 
  •  SME lending has been increasing in recent years and The Financial Services Authority (OJK) noted that Indonesian banks in general have complied with the OJK rules that mandate them to allocate 10% of their loan portfolio to SMEs in 2016, which will be increased to 20% in 2018.
  • According to data from the Indonesian central bank, as of February 2016, SME loans accounted for 18% or equivalent to 728.97 trillion IDR (48.90 billion EUR) of a total credit portfolio of 3,998.09 trillion IDR (268.22 billion EUR). State-owned banks remained the dominant force in SME financing by disbursing 82.61 trillion IDR (5.54 billion EUR) in total.[1]
  • Green finance mainly originates from international development finance institutions (such as AFD or KfW) that channel their funds through state-owned or local commercial banks. SMEs need more domestic sources of green finance. 
  • Collateral is generally considered less impor­tant for a successful loan application, and stronger em­phasis is placed on a general, qualitative assessment of the borrower’s personal and business ‘reputation’ and ‘character’ during the credit approval process (Bank Indo­nesia, 2013).

[1] Indonesia Microfinance Sector Overview| Key Component for Sustainable Growth. (2017). Gbgindonesia.com. Retrieved from http://www.gbgindonesia.com/en/finance/article/2016/indonesia_s_microfinance_sector_overview_key_comp

Public support in Indonesia

  • At a G8 conference in 2009, Indonesia committed to re­ducing its greenhouse gas emissions by 26% (BAU) by 2020. To meet this target, substantial investment of around USD 170-200 billion p.a. will be needed for criti­cal infrastructure, as well as environmentally sensitive areas such as agriculture, forestry, energy, mining and waste.
  • The Government of Indonesia set up the Green Investment Fund (IGIF) in 2010: with Indonesia USD 1 billion, the fund has an objective of scaling both public and private investments into infrastructure, with the IGIF acting as a shadow investor by providing funds for projects or banks without making direct loans or providing grants (DFID Indonesia, 2010; Brown and Peskett, 2011). However up to date, the running of this fund is not clear. 
  • A major increase in direct investment is needed for In­donesia to make a substantial shift towards a sustainable development pathway.

Challenges

  • Deficiencies in overall financial infrastructure
  • Weak legal and regulatory framework
  • Challenges in maintaining adequate cash flow
  • Perception of higher risk due to lack of in-country ex­amples of technology application, as well as lack of tech­nical and policy analytical evaluation constrain banks from lending to SMEs for green projects
  • Higher transaction costs, long turnaround time due to additional (environmen­tal) assessments, and longer tenor required (hence higher risk) to achieve environmental and financial savings.
  • Lack of differentiation for green finance products
  • Low labor productivity
  • High borrowing costs
  • Complicated licensing process and high tax compliance costs
  • Weak collateral and insolvency regimes impede cash-flow based, limited recourse project finance. In Indonesia, cash-flow based finance is not practised. In the absence of banking and securities laws that enable securitisation of cash flows, contract rights, as well as elaborated insol­vency regimes to facilitate collection and prioritisation of multiple creditors, the Indonesian market’s ability to promote diverse access to finance.

Main institutions providing Green Finance

Main institutions providing Green Finance

  • Bank Indonesia (regulating authority)
  • Bank Pembangunan Daerah Bali (Bank BPD Bali)
  • Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI)
  • Public Bank Mandiri
  • L'Agence Française de Développement (AFD or French Development Agency) 
  • Bank Negara Indonesia (BNI)
  • Indonesia Export Import Bank (EXIM bank)
  • The Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water (METGW)
  • Global Environment Facility (GEF)
  • United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
  • KfW & Partners (German development bank)
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Finland

 

Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) is well known for its focus on providing finance to SMEs; about 80% of BRI's lending portfolio is dedicated to SMEs. This experience has fos­tered BRI's innovative approaches for client acquisition, assessment and servicing. To serve SME customers effec­tively, BRI has 'down-scaled' standard commercial bank practice and enhanced operations with processes from community bank practice. Credit analyses are simplified and weightings are adjusted for SMEs relative to larger borrowers. Collateral is generally considered less impor­tant for a successful loan application, and a stronger em­phasis is placed on a general, qualitative assessment of the borrower's personal and business 'reputation' and 'character' during the credit approval process (Bank Indo­nesia, 2013).

Public Bank Mandiri and L'Agence Française de Développement (AFD or French Development Agency) recently launched the second part of cooperation for financing renewable energy and energy efficiency projects. AFD extended a line of credit to Mandiri of USD 100 million in 2010 during phase one, and an ad­ditional USD 100 million in 2013 during phase two of the initiative. Out of the total USD 200 million, about USD 97 million has been disbursed to finance energy efficiency, mini-hydro, biogas and biomass projects, among others. While the first tranche focused only on targeted project types, the second project phase builds on lending activities by providing funding for technical capacity building and transaction support for Mandiri to internally assess and underwrite green projects.

Channelled through Bank BNI and Indonesia Exim-bank, the Industrial Efficiency and Pollution Control (IEPC-1 and IEPC-2) facility is targeted at SMEs to sup­port end-of-pipe solutions and integrated environ­mental investments, such as machinery upgrades and a more efficient resource use. The credit line of EUR 11.25 million (USD 14 million) is largely funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development through KfW, providing EUR 9 mil­lion (USD 11.2 million), and through BNI and Eximbank, providing EUR 2.5 million (USD 3.1 million).

Status and policies

GHG emissions data

2015 total territorial GHG emissions[1]* (excluding land use change and forestry):  537 MtCO2

2015 territorial GHG emissions per capita: 2.1 tCO2/person

2014 CO2 consumption emissions:[2] 540 MtCO

 *GHG territorial emissions are Carbon dioxide emissions from the use of coal, oil and gas (combustion and industrial processes), the process of gas flaring and the manufacture of cement.


[1] CO2 Emissions | Global Carbon Atlas. (2016). Globalcarbonatlas.org. Retrieved from http://www.globalcarbonatlas.org/en/CO2-emissions

[2] Carbon dioxide emissions occurring anywhere in the world attributed to the country in which goods and services are consumed. For more information see: Section 2.1.2, The global carbon budget 1959-2015, Le Quéré et al. 2016. 

GDP

2016 GDP: EUR 204.51 billion

GDP composition by sector:

Agriculture: 13.7%
Industry: 40.3%
Services: 46%

Industry subsectors:[1] petroleum and natural gas, textiles, automotive, electrical appliances, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, medical instruments and appliances, handicrafts, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, processed food, jewelry, and tourism

Agricultural products: rubber and similar products, palm oil, poultry, beef, forest products, shrimp, cocoa, coffee, medicinal herbs, essential oil, fish and its similar products, and spices


[1] The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency. (2017). Cia.gov. Retrieved 2 August 2017, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bg.html

Climate change policies

National policies

  1. National Action Plan for Greenhouse Gas Reduction (RAN-GRK) 2010—2020
  2. Indonesia Climate Change Sectoral Roadmap (ICCSR) 2010
  3. National Adaptation Action Plan on Climate Change (RAN-API) 2013- 2014:
  4. National Medium Term Development Plan (RPJMN) 2015-2019
  5.  Action Plan to Respond to Climate Change (RANPI) 2007
  6. The 2005 Blueprint PEN (National Energy Management Blueprint)  

International mitigation targets

  • Ratified UNFCCC in 1994
  • Ratified Kyoto Protocol in 2004
  • Ratified Paris Agreement in 2016 

Indonesia’s INDC  to the UNFCCC:[1]

Unconditional commitment: reduce 26% of its greenhouse gases against the business as usual (BAU) scenario by the year 2020.

Indonesia is committed to reducing emissions by 29% compared to the BAU scenario by 2030, as a fair reduction target scenario based on the country’s most recent assessment of the 2010’s National Action Plan on GHG Reduction. The BAU scenario is projected approximately 2.881 GtCO2e in 2030. 

 Conditional: with support form the international community, Indonesia hopes to increase their emissions reductions up to 41% by 2030.

Government financing for climate change related initiatives

Indonesia Climate Change Trust Fund (ICCTF):[2] a national trust fund of the Government of Indonesia dedicated to climate change, supporting the achievement of National mitigation targets (RAN-GRK) and Adaptation (RAN-API) targets. The fund received 159,017 million IDR (approximately EUR 11.24 million) in 2015 and 2016. Projects focus on land-based mitigation, adaptation and resilience, and energy.


[1] INDCs - Intended Nationally Determined ContributionsUnfccc.int. 2017. Retrieved from http://unfccc.int/focus/indc_portal/items/8766.php

Republic of Indonesia. (2016). Intended Nationally Determined Contribution Republic of Indonesia. Retrieved from http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/Indonesia/1/INDC_REPUBLIC%20OF%20INDONESIA.pdf

[2] Indonesia Climate Change Trust Fund. (2017). Icctf.or.id. Retrieved from icctf.or.id

Climate change adaptation efforts

Indonesia's INDC states that it will implement adaptation measures to risks in all sectors, strengthen local capacities, improve knowledge and develop polices on climate change adaption, disaster risk reduction, and adaptive technologies.[1]

Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA): Project of Capacity Development for Climate Change Strategies in Indonesia[2]

National Adaptation Action Plan on Climate Change (RAN-API) 2013- 2014: Part of the national development framework, National Medium Term Development Plan (RPJMN) to provide guidance on adaptation in the short-term (2013-2014), medium-term (2015-2019), and long-term (2020-2025). The plan aims to build capacities in: ecosystem resilience (maintain ecosystem services), special areas resilience (coastal areas and small islands) economic resilience, and social and livelihood resilience.


[1] Republic of Indonesia. (2016). Intended Nationally Determined Contribution Republic of Indonesia. Retrieved from http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/Indonesia/1/INDC_REPUBLIC%20OF%2

[2] Japan International Cooperation Agency. (2014). JICA’s Support for Climate Change Adaptation in Indonesia. Presentation, Capacity Development for Climate Change Strategies in Indonesia.  https://unfccc.int/files/adaptation/application/pdf/jica_sato_chiro_on_indonesia.pdf

Climate change impacts

Indonesia has a diverse geography and its ecosystems range from coastal systems, peat bogs, and tropical forest (the world’s third largest). The country is a biodiversity hotspot; Indonesia has 10% of the world’s flowering plants, 12% of mammal species (including endangered orangutans, critically endangered Sumatran tigers, and rhinos) 16% of the world’s reptiles and 17% of all known bird species.[1] Its conservation is a global priority.  However, Indonesia has one of the highest rates of deforestation and degradation in the world, which exacerbates climate change impacts.  

Indonesia has 80,000 km of coastline and sea level rise would affect 17,508 low laying islands[2]less than 10 meters above sea level and the 42 million people living in coastal zones.[3] Indonesia’s population is 258 million,[4] and its high population density and growth, industrialisation, land-use change, and wildfires have led to habitat destruction, loss of critical ecosystem services, and compromised livelihoods. 

Main climate change impacts: 

  • Rising surface temperature
  • Changes in seasonality of precipitation/rainfall changes
  • Water scarcity
  • Droughts
  • Forest fires
  • Sea level rise
  • Salt water intrusion
  • Floods
  • Storms
  • Biodiversity loss
  • Human health

[1] Indonesia’s Rainforests: Biodiversity and Endangered SpeciesRainforest Action Network. Retrieved from www.ran.org/indonesia_s_rainforests_biodiversity_and_endangered_species

[2] Case, M., Ardiansyah, F., & Spector, E. (2007). Climate Change in Indonesia Implications for Humans and Nature. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved from http://awsassets.panda.org/downloads/inodesian_climate_change_impacts_report_14nov07.pdf  

[3] Republic of Indonesia. (2016). Intended Nationally Determined Contribution Republic of Indonesia. Retrieved from www4.unfccc.int/submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/Indonesia/1/INDC_REPUBLIC%20OF%20INDONESIA.pdf

[4] The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency. (2017). Cia.gov. Retrieved 2 August 2017, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bg.html

Economic, social, and environmental impacts of climate change

A 2016 USAID policy brief estimates “the total costs imposed on Indonesia in 2050 by climate change in the areas of agriculture, health, and sea level rise, at 132 trillion Indonesian rupiahs which, at present prices, would be 1.4 per cent of today’s Indonesian economy as measured by GDP.”[1]

Manufacturing industry/SMEs:

 

  • Contributes to 18.1% of GDP.[2]
  • Businesses will be interrupted by weather events such as floods from heavy rainfall or sea level rise.
  • Economic activities in coastal areas account for approximately 25% of GDP; which are vulnerable to storms and sea level rise.
  • Transport and logistics routes are damaged or disrupted.
  • Heightened price and market volatility.
  • Impacts on employees and consumers – lack of access to basic goods and services.
  • Lack of water and energy availability affect operations and productions.
  • Health issues from heat waves and increase of disease will cause decreases in labor and work production.

Agriculture:

 

  • Agriculture employs 38.9% of the workforce
  • The greatest financial impact of climate change will be due to decreased agricultural output, which accounts for 53 percent of total losses of an estimated 132 trillion Indonesian rupiahs.
  • Drought, fires, water scarcity, changes in precipitation, and floods all affect agricultural production and cause crop failure. Irrigated and rain-fed agriculture will be most negatively impacted.
  • After an El Nino event in 2015, the World Food Program interviewed 2,400 households in eight drought-affected districts across four provinces and found that 40% of primary rice growers lost more than 50% of their crop in the last harvest, and that almost half of all households engaged in food crop production and those reliant on agricultural wage labor reported a 30% or more reduction in income due to drought.[3]
  • Sea level rise causes inundation of agricultural land, rice paddy, and brackish ponds used for aquaculture.

Infrastructure: 

 

  • Jakarta is at high risk for sea level rise.
  • Infrastructure and homes will be damaged by flooding and sea level rise.
  • USAID report estimates that by 2050:  lost income from urban properties accounts for most losses due to sea level rise: Rp 14,406,695 million out of a total of Rp 17,198,244 million, or 84%, with 94% of those losses in Jakarta.

Marine ecosystems and fisheries:

 

  • Indonesia is the second largest marine capture fisheries producer in the world, support 6 million people with direct employment.[4]
  • Overfishing and sea temperature rise has caused massive coral bleaching from ocean acidification, which has destroyed marine ecosystems.
  • The impact on fishing and aquaculture also affects food security since Indonesians are heavily reliant on seafood in their diets.
  • Sea level rise threatens coastal mangroves.

Loss of ecosystem services and biodiversity:

 

  • Biodiversity is responsible for over 11% of Indonesia’s GDP. It is estimated that 40 million Indonesians live off of biodiversity.
  • Increased droughts and more frequent forest fires cause land degradation and habitat loss.
  • Changes in distributions of species and reproduction timings of plants.  

Health:

 

  • Increase of water and vector borne diseases especially malaria and dengue fever, which are highly sensitive to changes in precipitation, temperature, and humidity.
  • If global mean temperature rises 4 degrees C, its projected that workers in heavy labor (agriculture, construction) will lose 23% of their annual daily work hours due to heat stress or heat-related illnesses.[5]
  • “The overall negative impacts of climate change will fall disproportionately on Jakarta, the capital, which will experience 25% of the total projected costs through the combined effects of dengue fever and sea level rise.”[6]
  • Health impacts account for 34% of the estimated cost of climate change at 132 trillion Indonesian rupiahs.

[1] USAID. (2016). Indonesia Costs of Climate Change 2050. USAID Policy Brief. Retrieved from www.climatelinks.org/resources/indonesia-costs-climate-change-2050-%E2%80%93-policy-brief

[2] USAID. (2016). Indonesia Costs of Climate Change 2050. USAID Policy Brief. Retrieved from https://www.climatelinks.org/resources/indonesia-costs-climate-change-2050-%E2%80%93-policy-brief

[3] World Food Programme. (2016). The Impact of Drought on Households in Four Provinces in Eastern Indonesia. Retrieved from documents.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/ena/wfp282160.pdf

[4] Indonesian Biodiversity Research Center – Transforming Biodiversity Research and Education in Indonesia. (2016). ibrc-bali.org

[5] World Health Organization. (2016). Indonesia Climate and Health Country Profile 2015. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/globalchange/resources/country-profiles/PHE-country-profile-Indonesia.pdf?ua=1

[6] USAID. (2016). Indonesia Costs of Climate Change 2050. USAID Policy Brief. Retrieved from https://www.climatelinks.org/resources/indonesia-costs-climate-change-2050-%E2%80%93-policy-brief

International cooperation on climate change

Status: 2017. Inclusive of grants and loans; not an exhaustible list.

Partner

No. of Projects

Program/ Areas of focus

Funding Amount

Duration

Funding Sources

Global Environment Facility

 

122

Biodiversity, Climate change, land degradation, chemicals and waste

€849.62

Million

 

Ongoing

GEF Trust Fund

 

UNDP

 

Hydrofluorocarbons Phase Out Management Plan (HPMP)

 

2012-2018

 

USAID Global Climate Change Program

 

3

Adaptation, biodiversity, forestry, renewable energy

€13.22

Million

 

USAID

UK Climate Change Unit (UKCCU)

 

Forestry and land-use change, low-carbon energy development, and climate negotiations

€18.76 Million

2011-2016

UK Government

Climate Investment Funds

 

2

Strengthening Rights and Economies of Adat and Local Communities Project (DGMI)

€15.41 million

2016 -

Climate Investment Fund

Community-Focused Investments to Address Deforestation and Forest Degradation

€16.05 Million

2016 -

International Climate Initiative (IKI)

 

53

green banking, clean energy financing, low emission development, marine biodiversity protection, forest and land management

€Millions

Ongoing

German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB)

UN REDD Program

Various

REDD+-related activities

and climate change

€3.7 

Billion

Ongoing

UN REDD, Forest Carbon Partnership Facility, IKI, Government Australia, Government  of Norway

 

World Bank

 

Promoting Sustainable Community Based Natural Resource Management and Institutional Development Project 

€21.15 Million

2016 - 2021

 

World Bank

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH. (GIZ)

 

Green Economy and Locally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in Indonesia (GE-LAMA-I)

 

€4.5 Million

2013- 2017

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB)

Biodiversity and Climate Change

 

€4.28 Million

2013-2017

Forest and Climate Protection (FORCLIME II)

€14 Million

2012- 2016

NAMA - Green Chillers and Industrial Energy Efficiency Programme

 

€4 Million

2014-20118