Bangladesh

Project title Sector SCP practice
Bangladesh SusBuild Building materials industry Product design for sustainability
Eco-Jute Textile and leather industry Cleaner Production
ECOLEBAN Textile and leather industry Environmental Management Systems
Jute Diversified Products Wood-based industry Business and products for the poor, Product design for sustainability
Lead Elimination Project Chemical sector Cleaner Production
METABUILD Fabricated metals industry, Building materials industry Sustainable Supply Chain Management
Re-Tie Textile and leather industry Cleaner Production, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Management
Tomato and Mango Value Chain Project Food and beverage Sustainable Supply Chain Management, Eco-labels

Focal point

Mr. Nurul Quadir

Joint Secretary

Ministry of Environment and Forests

Status of SCP policy framework

Bangladesh is country in the northeastern part of South Asia and is bordered by India and Myanmar. It has limited reserves of coal and natural gas. However the proven reserves of gas will be exhausted within a few years, leaving Bangladesh dependent on imported oil (fossil fuel). The country’s main endowments include a vast human resource base and rich agricultural land. 

10-year-Social Economic Development Strategy (SEDS): ‘Outline Perspective Plan of Bangladesh (2010-2021): Making Vision 2021 A Reality’ is the main strategy for development of the Bangladesh Government. Concrete actions that are needed to implement SEDS are described in the 5-year Socio-Economic Development Plan (SEDP). The Perspective Plan mainly highlights issues related to architecture, resources, competencies, and capacities. Eradication of poverty, inequality, and deprivation are priorities. 

The Sixth Five Year Plan (SYFP) for 2011-2015 follows a development path where the sustainability of development will be ensured through better protection from climate change and natural disasters. The SYFPs’ main focus is on agricultural productivity and growth, manufacturing and exports, energy, transport, urbanization, education, environment, climate change and disaster risk management.

Table: Selected Bangladesh Policies Related to SCP

(Source: UNEP, Capacity Building and Policy Needs Assessment for Sustainable Consumption and Production: Final Report, 2012)

2010 Industrial Policy underlines the need to overcome the challenges of weak investment in climate, lack of export oriented trade, power shortages, as well as inadequate access to credit, low labour productivity and weak research and technology deployment. The policy aims to overcome the challenges by creating and sustaining a momentum of accelerated industrial growth, employment generation and improvement in living standards. With this policy clear signals are given to the private sector by the Bangladesh government that encourage a private sector led industrialization of the country. 

The National Land Use Policy (2001) highlights the need for a National Land Zoning Programme for integrated planning and management of land resources; the government concedes that implementation has been inadequate. The government plans to include creating a database of all land resources and land zoning information, and developing a coastal land zoning project to ensure proper use of land and mitigate land degradation.

Energy Development Plan, being a part of the Vision 2021, aims to ensure energy security by increasing the generation capacity of electricity, to increase the efficiency of energy use together with reducing system loss, to diversify fuel use in power generation, to increase private sector participation to mobilize resources in electricity, gas and other energy supply, to reduce the demand-supply gap in both the primary (fossil fuel) and secondary (electricity) sectors, and to conserve energy.

Bangladesh has a National Environment Council with the secretariat in the Ministry of Environment and Forest. The Council is responsible for overall policy guidance, but does not address individual projects.

The SCP-related implementation agencies are: Department of Environment, Department of Forests, Bangladesh Forest Industries Development Corporation, Water Resources Planning Organization, and the Bangladesh Standards and Testing Institution.

Resource consumption and production

Main Resource Consumption and Resource Efficiency Indicators (2010)

Population (thousands) 150494 (2011)
GDP (million USD) 106200 (2011)
GDP is in USD exchange rate based on year 2005 and deflated.
Source: UNSD database.
Subject Area Total Per person Per USD$ of GDP
Domestic Material Consumption, DMC
(tonnes, tonnes per capita, kgr per 1USD$)
255,728,192.00 1.69 0.0024
GHG emissions
(kilotonnes,tonnes per capita, kgr per 1USD$) )
177,504.47 1.17 1.67
Total Primary Energy Supply, TPES
(Petajoules, Gigajoules per capita, Megajoules per 1USD$)
1,280.52 8.47 1.21
Water Use
(Trillion litres, Kilolitres per capita, Litres per 1USD$)
35.87 237.35 3.38
Subject Area Indicator
Population density 2015
(UNESA 2012 revision), population per sq.km
1 114
GDP per capita (USD), 2013 WB) 957.8
HDI Rank (2013) UNDP 0.558
Arable land (hectares per person) WB 2012 0.005
Forest cover in % (2010), UNSTATS 11
Material intensity (2010)UNEP 2.9
Per-capita energy use (kg of oil equivalent per capita) 2011, WB 205
Energy intensity
(total primary energy consumption per USD of GDP) 2011, EIA
8,497.49
GHG intensity (2010) UNEP 2.01
CO2 emissions (metric tone per capita), 2010, WB 0.4
Number of Middle Class consumers % (2010), ADB 20
Number of people with income < 2USD/day (PPP, USD, %), 2010, ADB 80

Trends in Resource Consumption and Resource Efficiency Indicators (1970-2010)

DE: Domestic Extraction;
MI: Material Intensity of the economy;
MF: Material Footprint.
All other abbreviations explained in the table above

In panel a) we can see that Bangladesh’s TPES grew the fastest of the overview indicators, followed by GDP then DMC. This indicates that energy intensity increased, while material intensity decreased. Interestingly, even though TPES grew rapidly, the slowest growth was in GHGs. This indicates that either GHGs in Bangladesh are dominated by sources other than energy production, or that the change in energy sources has been towards lower GHG emissions intensities. Comparing trajectory of DE in panel b) with GDP in a), it appears that the doubling of GDP from 1970 to 1995 required little in the way of increased DE, however from 1995 on economic growth appears to have required increasing inputs from the domestic environment, notably of non-metallic minerals, presumably for construction. The MF data in panel c) further confirms a fairly rapid increase in Bangladesh’s material requirements from around 1995, which plateaus within a decade, with a subsequent decrease in non-metallic minerals but continued growth in fossil fuels. Panels d), e) and f) show that all intensities decreased or remained relatively static over the period 1990 to 2010, so the deterioration in energy efficiency we would expect from panel a) was restricted to the earlier 1970 to 1990 period. Improvements in GHG intensities have been particularly strong and consistent for the 1990 to 2010 period. The large gap between energy consumption when measures on a TPES of EF basis noteworthy in panel e), with TPES estimates higher than EF by around 50% to 100%. 

(Source: UNEP CSIRO Indicators for a Resource Efficient and Green Asia and the Pacific, 2015)

Key references relevant to SCP

UNEP's relevant activities

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